The study investigated the influence of parenting styles and peer pressure on social adjustment of in-school adolescents in Ibadan metropolis, Oyo state Nigeria.
The population of the study comprises students in senior secondary school one and two (SS1-SS2). The participant’s age ranged from 12 years to 18 years. 150 questionnaires were administered out of which 149 students participated and this amount to 98% of total respondents. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire consisting of Parenting Style Scale, Peer Pressure Scale and Social Adjustment Scale. The data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) and Multiple Regression Statistics Method. Two research questions and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Three research instruments were used they are: Measurement of Parenting Style (MOPS) contained fifteen questions in total for the students to answer pertaining to their primary caregiver, Peer Pressure Scale (PPS) contained 10 questions and the popularity subscale contained 12 questions and Social Adjustment Scale (SAS) is a six items scale with responses anchored base on the four likert points.
The results revealed that there was significant relationship between the independent variables (Parenting Style and Peer Group Pressure) and the dependent variable (Social Adjustment) in the following order of magnitude: Parenting Style (r = 0.658; P < 0.05) and Peer Pressure (r = 0.760; P < 0.05). Similarly, the result also indicated that the two independent variables (Parenting Style and Peer Group Pressure) when pulled together have significant effect on Social Adjustment of in-school Adolescents in Ibadan Metropolis. The result shows that Peer Pressure made the most significant contribution to Social Adjustment of in-school Adolescents in Ibadan Metropolis. (β = 0.704) to the prediction follow by Parenting Styles (β = 0.136).
The findings of this research provide reasonable information that can be applied in counselling and social psychology to the better understanding of social adjustment of in-school adolescents considering the fact that a keen observation of what is happening in Nigeria today seems to indicate that social behaviour is on the increase among in-school adolescents despite the fact that the manifestation of anti-social behaviour could hinder their ability to concentrate in classroom teaching and learning situation and prevent them from developing required functional competencies for academic success. It is recommended that additional research examine the influence of peer group acceptance on the social adjustment of adolescents in the context of other potential influences, including the nature of the parent-children relationship, the academic culture in the home setting, and the support and encouragement that students receive from teachers at school.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Table of Contents vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 6
Purpose of the Study 7
Significant of the Study 8
Scope of the study 9
Operational Definition of Terms 10
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Theoretical Review 13
Social Adjustment 15
Parenting Style 17
Parenting Involvement 20
Peer Group Pressure 24
Anomie Theory 27
Sociological Theory 29
The Attachment Theory 30
Problem behavior Theory 34
Theory of Adolescent 36
Empirical Review 51
Parenting style and Social Adjustment 51
Peer pressure and Social Adjustment 56
Research Hypothesis 58
Research Questions 59
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
Research Design 60
Sample and Sampling Technique 61
Research Instruments 61
Procedure for Data Collection 63
Data analysis 64
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT
Summary of Findings 68
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Discussion of Findings 70
Suggestion for Future Studies 83
1.1 Background to the Study
Social adjustment problems have been associated with academic performance of secondary school students particularly in Ibadan, Oyo State and in Nigeria in general. Several researchers relate students’ academic performance to social adjustment problems, study habits, hardwork, commitment, events, perseverance and preconceived convictions (Ugwuegbu, 2004). Others associate students’ achievements in school to instructional methods, teaching strategies and techniques. In general, teaching and learning as well as achievement in school are affected by social adjustment problems, study habits and strategies of instruction adopted by the teacher.
Students in secondary schools exhibit various social adjustment problems and these affect their academic performance. It is generally believed that the adolescence period offers a unique opportunity to the learners to realize many intrinsic values associated with their adjustment problems.
The relationship between a student and his or her parents has been noted to have an influential impact not only on the student performance in school but also in his/her life generally. Parenting styles have been analysed and grouped by educationists. Numerous studies such as Baumrind, (1991), Maccoby & Martin, (1983), Mandara, (2006) and Micki, (2008), have shown that the parenting style experienced by children contribute in no small measure to the molding of the behavioral pattern generally and specifically, the performance of the children. Miki (2008) noted that the relationship between parenting styles and their children's performance has shown that parents can have dramatic impact on their children’s performance, often resulting in a removable improvement. It is also shown that parents can have a powerful impact on their children's behaviour in the classroom and at other school based activities.
The adolescent years are often portrayed as stressful for both parents and teenagers. Research demonstrates that teenagers undergo a number of developmental adjustments including biological, cognitive, emotional and social changes on their way to becoming adults. Parenting effectively during the teen years, as in any developmental period, requires a thorough understanding of these normative developmental changes. Parents can benefit from an understanding that their parenting style provides a basis for many healthy developmental outcomes during adolescence. Understanding the different parenting styles and their impact on the parent-teen relationship may help parents and their teens navigate adolescence more smoothly.
In ways similar to the community, the peer group becomes an agency of enculturation and learning. Even very young children develop a sense of self from their perceptions of important people in their surroundings, including relatives, teachers, and peers. Socioeconomic status, ethnic identity, and parents’ occupations affect how families view themselves and the process by which they socialize their children (Bornstein, 2002). Later, as children leave the home setting, their self-perception and socializing skills become influenced by how their peers view them. When children move out from family to child care centers, school, and the community at large, they begin to form attachments, and friendships emerge through their play. These relationships influence behavior. Even infants and toddlers are observed reacting to other infants by touching them, by crying when others cry, and later by offering nurturance or comfort. By about age three, early friendships begin to form and children’s peers begin to have a more lasting influence (Parke, 1990).
Further, Peer influence on behavior gradually becomes more dominant. Harris (1998, 2002) and Rowe (1994) maintained that peer groups have an even stronger influence than that of parents, although that extreme position has been refuted by other researchers (Berk, 2005). Gradually, children discover that others can share their feelings or attitudes or have quite different ones. The perspectives of others will affect how children feel about their own families. Children usually have a “family” view of their own and of other cultures. So, when confronted with other perspectives, they often need to rethink their own viewpoints. It is often difficult for children to adjust to the idea that other families can function radically differently from their own and yet hold many of the same attitudes and beliefs and be equally nurturing and secure. The peer group serves as a barometer for children examining themselves and their feelings about self and family.
The peer group also influences development of children’s socializing skills. These early friendships help children learn how to negotiate and relate to others, including their siblings and other family members. They learn from peers how to cooperate and socialize according to group norms and group-sanctioned modes of behavior. The peer group can influence what the child values, knows, wears, eats, and learns. The extent of this influence, however, depends on other situational constraints, such as the age and personality of children and the nature of the group (Harris, 1998; Hartup, 1983). Socialization is particularly important for children with disabilities, and it is the reason many programs include peers who are typically developing in special education programs or include children with disabilities in general education classrooms.
In its most acceptable form, the peer group is a healthy coming-of age arbiter, by which children grasp negotiating skills and learn to deal with hostility and to solve problems in a social context. In its most destructive mode, the peer group can demand blind obedience to a group norm, which can result in socially alienated gangs with pathological outlooks (Perry, 1987). Despite so much change in today's society, the fundamental tasks of growing up still endure - to find a place in a valued group that gives a sense of belonging; to identify and master tasks that are generally recognized as having value and therefore can earn respect by acquiring skill to cope with them; to acquire a sense of worth as a person; and to develop reliable and predictable relationships with other people, especially a few close friends and loved ones (Hamburg, 1992).
Social adjustment is the process whereby the individual attempts to maintain of further his security, comforts, status of creative in calcinations in the face of the ever changing conditions. It means bringing about changes in the habitual conduct or behaviour which necessary of an individual as a social is being (Warren, 1934). As pointed by the Adler, a socially well-adjusted person is not only efficient and happy in his environment but also he must have a sense of social feeling. Many researchers have set out to detect what factors lead to this type of adjustment. Even though there has been a lot of research done to detect the factors that are possible contributors to social adjustment, there have only been a few studies that have compared the effects of different factors. Both parenting and peer group pressure have been shown to play a role in the presence of social adjustment. However, there is not a lot of research available to determine which factor is a stronger contributor to the presence of social adjustment. Therefore, the present study will focus on which of these factors have a stronger association with social adjustment.
Peer pressure is defined as the social pressure to adopt certain behaviors in order to fit in with others (Santor, Messervey, & Kusumakar, 2000). The different parenting styles that were examined in this study included neglectful, authoritarian, authoritative, and permissive. Neglectful parents exhibit a lack of control and lack of support and protection (Hoeve, Blokland, Dubas, Loeber, Gerris, & Van Der Laan, 2008). Authoritarian parents are overprotective and believe in harsh punishment (Hoeve et al., 2008). Authoritative parents show high levels of support and have effective communication with their children (Hoeve et al., 2008). Permissive parents give their children high levels of independence, which results in low levels of parental guidance (Schaffer, Clark, & Jeglic, 2009). The present study focused on the influence of parenting style and peer group pressure on social adjustment of in-school adolescents in Ibadan Metropolis. Even though the literature indicates that peer group pressure has a significant relationship with social adjustment, it was predicted that peer group pressure will have a greater impact than parental style as it relates to social adjustment in the present study. It was hypothesized that peer group pressure such as abuse, neglect, bullying, peer adjustment etc. will have a stronger relation to the presence of high levels of antisocial behavior than parental style will.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Adolescence can be seen as a stage in the life span through which individual pass before adulthood. It is also a period of great emotional stress. Whatever happens during this developmental stage goes a long way in affecting the individual positive or negative.
Parenting styles are different manners of parents' child relationship. Parenting is a complex activity that includes mar specific behaviours that work individually and together to influence the child. Peer influence is one of the most frequently referred to forms of negative peer influence it is particularly common because most adolescent are forced to spend large amount of time in fixed groups (schools and sub groups within them) regardless of their opinion of these groups. In addition to this, they lack the maturity to handle it. Also adolescents’ naturally wish to behave negatively towards those who are nor members of their own peer groups.
Although specific parenting behaviours, such as spanking or reading aloud, may influence the child's development, looking any specific behaviour in isolation may be misleading. However they are people who have noted that specific parenting practices are less important in predicting child well-being than is the broad pattern of parenting. Most researchers who attempt to describe this broad parental milieu rely on Diana Baumrind's concept of parenting style. The construct of parenting style is used to capture normal variations in parents' attempts to control and socialize their children.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The purpose of this research work is to investigate the influence of Parenting Style and Peer Group Pressure on Social Adjustment of in-school Adolescents. Specifically, the following objectives will be achieved in the course of the study:
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study will hopefully provide empirical data to establish whether parenting style and peer group pressure of social adjustment influence of an in-school adolescent. It is also expected to indicate clearly the degree of parenting style and peer group pressure and the level of satisfaction of social adjustment and provide useful information on how to control some negative influence of parenting style and peer group. The findings will help adolescents to choose their peers with caution. It will also provide policy maker with relevant information that will help in effective adjustment in social affecting the adolescent in Ibadan and other in-school adolescents generally.
Based on the findings of the study, the stake-holders would be able to identify and understand the concept of parental influence and peer group pressure on the social adjustment of adolescents. It is on this note that curative and preventive measures will be taken in order to deter further fall in standard of education which immensely centers on social adjustment problems of our students in recent times. The findings of the study will help to check such unusual social adjustment problems like irregularity in attendance to lessons, a feeling of inferiority complexes which nurture negative self-concept among the students, retard their academic achievement and other activities.
The study is significant because it will provide the basis for using measures of parenting style and peer pressure as a determinant of students’ disposition towards social adjustment.
Thus, Counsellors and teachers will be able to identify students who are likely to influence by peer pressure on social adjustment on the basis of their scores on social adjustment inventor, it will provide comprehensive information for counsellors, educators, and parents on how they can assist adolescents to deal with peer pressure.
This research work will lead to further in-depth study on influence of parenting style and peer pressure on adolescents’ academic performance and our educational system. Hence, the Nigerian Society will benefit a lot from the results of this study. It will serve as a contribution to knowledge on adolescents in Nigeria. In this regard, it will be useful for other researchers who might want to carry out research in related areas.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study examine the influence of Parenting Style and Peer Group Pressure on the Social Adjustment of in-school Adolescents in Ibadan Metropolis division of Oyo state, and since it was not possible to use all the local government and school in the area under the study, due to financial, communication, transportation constraints and understanding and the fact that not all the students will provide the true information (some will think anything they say or write down will be used against them maybe in school or at home) it was not only impossible to use all students within the scope of the study, but that the target of 150 in-school Adolescents needed to respond to the research instrument was also not attainable.
1.6 Operational Definition of Terms
The following terms and concept are explain as they are used in the study.