THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PROCESSIGN TECHNIQUIES ON THE ORGANOLEPTIC QUALITY OF SOYMILK PROCESSING AND STORAGE
Soymilk was processed from soymilk (Glycine Max) seed using that different processing techniques:
A Hot extraction method
B. Cold extraction method
C. Soaking before hot extraction method.
The soymilk samples were subjected to sensory evaluation using 9 point hedonic scale and proximate analysis.
Result obtained showed that sample A was significantly different (P < 0.05) between sample B had a more acceptable colour (P < 0.05) than samples A and C this was no significant difference between sample A and C in terms of colour.
The general acceptability of the sample showed that all the samples were acceptable.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Content
1.1 History of Soybeans
1.2 Uses of Soybeans
1.3 Composition of Soybeans
1.4 Nutritional Quality of Soybeans
1.5 Antinutritional Factors
1.6 Trypsin Inhibitor
1.8 Soybeans Saponings
1.9 Protein Quality of Soubeans
1.10 Aims and Objectives
2.1 Milk from Soybeans
2.2 Nutritional Value of Soybeans
2.3 Essential Amino Acid Content of Soybeans
2.4 Undesirable Components of Soybeans
2.4.1 Trypsin Inhibitor
2.4.5 Phytic acid
2.4.6 Bitter and Beeany Flavour
2.4.8 Soymilk Flavour
2.4.9 Soymilk and Lipoxidase Activity
2.6.1 Nutritional Aspect of Soymilk
2.6.3 Vitamins and Minerals
3.2 Methods I Hot Extraction Method
3.3 Method II Cold Extraction Method
3.4 Method III Soaking Before Hot Extraction Method
3.5 Method of Analysis
Result and Discussion
4.1 Effect of Soaking Time on the Organoptic Qualities of Soymilk
4.2 Effect of Soaking Time on the Protein Recovery and Total Solids
4.3 Effect of Blanching Time on the Organoleptic Qualities of Soymilk
4.4 Effect of Blanching Time on Protein Recovery and Total Solids
Conclusion and Recommendation
His of Soymilk: Soybeans belongs to the family leguminous, subfamily papiliondase and the genus Glycine Max. (Ricker and Morse, 1984), other normendatures which have been used include phaseolus Max, Soja Max Piper and Soja hispide moech.
It is not known when this remarkable legume, soybean was first cultivated in China. However as the first legume of which a written record was made. This was in the books of the Emperor Shen hung, dated 1800BC which describes the five principal and sacred crops of China, rice, bean, wheat barely and millet, lafter in his milliohm there were chinses writing, giving expert advice on growing soybean which was cultivated more extensively in North than in Southern China, it reached Hapan and other countries in East Asia at an early date.
Soybean contain about 46% protein and 18% fat, characteristics which have influenced it’s history: the ancient Chinese evolved methods of making from it’s preparations with high protein content for example, Curd and Shoyu, Shoyu is a dark brown liquid made by fermentation of a combination of soybeans and cereals (F.A.O. 1970). The Chinese also ate soybeans as a vegetable after it ahs sprouted.
The soybean was first heard of in Europe in 1712 through the German Botanist Egelbant Kalmpfer who had visited Japan. In the 18th century, it was grown in some European botanical gardens (F.A.O, 1970), it is first appearance in the United States in 1804, when Commander Perry brought home two varieties from Japan (F.A.O, 1970).
What was called the second stage in the history of soybeans did not begin until the first decade of the present century, when it become an important export from East – Asia at first mainly to Europe and alter to the importing countries was as a source of oil for soap making and other purposes and for the manufacture of livestock feed.
Then the third stage began in the early nineteen thirties, it is silent feature has been the large stage cultivation of the soybean in the United States, combined with the application of Modern Technology which enable it to be put to a variety of uses both as food and folder and as raw materials for manufacturing processes, while soybean has to a considerable extent becomes an industrial crop in the United States, it continues to be grown in East Asia as a food crop processed for consumption by time honoured methods. (FAO, 1970).
The fourth stage began during the first decade of the 20th century A.D. at the period in which this crop was first introduced of soybeans in Nigeria shows that middle belt of the country to be the best producer of soybean production (Ezedinmma, 1964). In Nigeria, nearly all of the soybean production estimated at 30,000 tons is used for human food. A response to increase in demand for soybean for soybean as a source of protein and vegetable oil, national programme in Nigeria have explained their research on the crop. Since 1987 (IITA; Annual Report 1985) currently more feather have been added to the number of products that can be obtained from soybeans in Nigeria, such products like soymilk as it had been recently demonstrated at the food investigation centuries in Enugu.
Soymilk in the traditional sense is simply an aqueous extract of whole soybean, A detailed description of the technique used for the preparation of the soymilk as well as its composition will be found in chapter 3.
Soymilk according to the nutritionist a possible substitute for cow or human milk particularly in the feeding of infant who are allegic to animal milk or where cows milk may be found to be two expensive or unavailable. Miller, (1962) soybean or vegetable milk or flu-changin chinse is reported to have been developed and used in china before the Christian era (paker and Morse 1943) by the philosopher who was credited with the first step in the processing of tofu and yuba. Then, the traditional milk is made by soaking the bean in water overnight, wet milling the bean, heating the wet mash to improve flavour and nutritional value and filtration. The milk produce is sold to the public in streets and canteens in china in 1984.
In recent years large scale production ha evolved along with commercial marketing of soymilk in Hongkong, Taiwan, Thailand, South Korea, Sinapere, Malaysiaa and not the United States (Babara, 1984).
Uses of Soybeans
Soybeans are a native crop of Eastern Asia where they have `served as an important part of the diet for centuries. The Japanese for example obtain 12 – 13% of their dietary protein from soybean product, for many of their traditional soy foods, the oriental people soak soybeans in water and then grind or cook them.
Hot water extraction of ground beans yields soybean milk which is consumed as such or is treated with calcium salts to precipitate the protein plus oil in the form of bean curd or tofu, fermentation of cooked soybeans yield products including soy sauce, misso, notto and tempheh.
Except for soy sauce, one of the traditional oriental foods is consumed in significant amounts in this country. Soybeans are a relative new corner to the American scene. They have only been gown in quantity since the late 1920’s when soybean processing become an established industry, the two major products were oil and defaulted meals.
In the mid – 1`930’s large portion of the oil began to be used for foods such as shortening, margarine, cooking oil mayonnaise and salad dressing, because of its high protein content and good nutritional value, when properly processed, the meal was used primarily for animal feeds.
Soybeans have expanded in the last 30 year from a minor crop to a major cash crops. Indeed in value to the farmer soybeans now rank second to corn and above wheat, potatoes, oats, cotton and a variety of other crops better known to the consumers, only within the last ten years however, have every many edible products. Containing soybean derivatives been directly associated with their source. In shortening their presence was “hidden” by statements similar to the followings. ‘A blend of hydrogenated vegetable oils or in salad dressing, merely “vegetable oil or a blend of vegetable oil”. Today a long list of foods containing soybean derived product can be prepared by careful reading of the labels in the supermarket, yet most of these are even not specifically identified as soybean. Product from corn, wheat, oats and many other commodities are so labeled for example corn flakes, wheat, garn, oatmeal, but not soybean. There are several reasons for this an enmity, soybean have a short history of sue in the U.S.A. the flavour and texture of soybean products are comparatively strange to people outside the orient.
Although the Chinese and Japanese have covered soybeans into a variety of products most of these foods have little physical or flavour identity with the original bean. Some people agree that green soybean are a delicious dish when properly harvested and cooked but their sale and the sale and the ale of mature beans for baking are extremely small. Soybean products have problems related to their flavour and flavour stability to their ruction in foods and to their physiological effects. Despite these problems soybean oils have become a major material in our food industry. Soybean now supply more than half of the total visible fits and oils consumed in the U.S.A
Soybean composition (PREXIMATE), commercial soybean constitute and 2% hypocotyls and phumule. Proximate composition for whole beans and fractions are given in Table 1