MANUFACTURE OF CEILING BOARD USING LOCAL MATERIALS
This project “The Production of Ceiling Board from Local Raw Materials” was carried out basically using raw materials which was sourced locally. These raw materials are found to be very much in abundance. Some are materials sourced from the ground and others are from agricultural wastes.
Three different types of ceiling boards were produced, their difference being in the type of fibre that was used. The fibres used for this different type includes; cellulose fibre obtained from pulped carton, saw dust and rice husk.
The raw materials used for the production of the different ceiling boards includes, cement, calcium carbonate (CaCo3), Kaolin, starch and water.
The first type produced is from pulped carton. First, the cartons were collected, size reduce, soaked in a large quantity of water for 24hours, strained to remove the water and the milled by grinding using a motar and pestle. The quantity to be used was weighed out. The other raw materials which include starch, powdered kaolin, calcium carbonate and water were all measured. The pulped carton was poured and thoroughly mixed. The CaCo3, kaolin and starch and water were all measured. The pulped Carton was poured into the reactor; next cement was poured and thoroughly mixed. The CaCo3, kaolin and starch was added one after the other while stirring continued. Finally, water was added sparingly and gradually until a very smooth slurry was obtained. This was then poured into a mould and smoothened out using a roller and was left to dry. It took 7days for it to get dry.
The next produced was ceiling board from sawdust. The sawdust was first sieved, soaked for a day and then strained to remove the water. The quantity used was measured as well as all the other raw materials that was used. The same procedure was repeated as that of the first method and it was allowed to dry. It took three days to dry.
Finally, ceiling board using rice husk was produced. The rice husk was sieved, materials to be used weighed out and procedure repeated again in this case and allowed to dry. It took 5 days for it to dry. Drying was done with solar energy for all cases.
The three different types were subjected to different test. This includes; moisture content test percentage humidity, bursting strength. The weight of the wet samples and dry samples was obtained as well as the density and volume.
Finally, the different ceiling boards were coasted. Ceiling board from cellulose fibre (Sample A) costs
N186.00 for the production, that of sawdust costs N184.00 while that of rice husk costs N185.00.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Letter of transmittal
Table of content
1.1 Aims and Objectives of the Project
2.0 History of Ceiling Board
2.1 Types of Ceiling Board
2.1.1 Asbestos Cement Ceiling Board
2.1.2 Acoustical Ceiling Board
2.1.3 Gypsum Ceiling Board
2.1.4 Gypsum Fibre Celling Board
2.1.5 Cement Fibre Ceiling Board
2.2 Raw Materials Used For The Production Of Ceiling Boards
2.2.4 Calcium Carbonate
2.3 The Study Of Thermal Properties Of The Ceiling Boards
2.3.1 Thermal Comfort
2.3.2 The Principles Of Thermal Insulation
2.3.3 Typical Thermal Properties Of Some Ceiling Boards
2.3.4 Conductivity Of Porous Materials
2.3.5 Surfaces Coefficients
2.4 Study Of Acoustic Properties
2.4.1 Acoustic Properties
2.4.2 Sound Absorption
2.4.3 Basic Factors In Acoustic Design
2.4.4 Manufacturing Process
2.5 Manufacturing Process
2.5.1 The manufacture of wood wool cements ceiling board.
2.5.2 Production Of Ceiling From Various Types Of Fibred
2.5.3 Production Of Ceiling Board From Paper
3.0 Manufacturing Process
3.1 Apparatus and Equipment Used For the Production
3.2 Chemicals And Materials Used For The Production
3.3 Composition Of Materials Used For The Production
3.4 Preparation Of Raw Materials
3.5 Production Procedure
3.8 Analysis Of The Samples
3.8.1 Introduction of the samples
3.8.2 Composition of sample sheet
3.8.3 Test and result of test
3.8.4 Rate of drying
3.8.5 Bursting strength
3.8.6 Moisture strength
4.1 Cost of Raw Materials
A ceiling board is a horizontal slab covering the upper section of a room or internal space. A ceiling board is generally not structural but is a shell concealing the details of the structure above. However, the ceiling might be holding up building materials such as heat or sound insulation.
In modern buildings, electric lights, smoke detector, security cameras and signage are commonly attached to ceilings.
This project however, is based on the production of ceiling board from local raw materials. These local raw materials include cement, fibre cellulose, fibre obtained from ground paper, mainly waste paper, water and some other additives.
There are different types of ceiling boards. These include;
1) Gypsum ceiling boards;
2) Acoustical ceiling boards;
3) Gypsum fibre ceiling boards;
4) Cement fibre-ceiling boards. Etc
These types of ceiling boards are grouped in accordance to the raw materials used for the production. Gypsum ceiling boards are produced from gypsum, Acoustical ceiling boards are obtained from mineral wool, gypsum and small amount of paper and starch. Gypsum fibre ceiling boards are produced from gypsum and fibre to reinforce the ceiling board.
This study however will be based mainly on the production of fibre cement ceiling boards. This consist essentially of an inorganic binder usually calcium silicate formed by the chemical reaction of a siliceous material and a calcareous material. This is reinforced by organic fibres, fillers and pigment compatible with the fibre reinforced cement to form a ceiling board.
In the past, ceiling boards were produced using Asbestos a fibre present naturally in rocks. It was used because of its high tensile strength, poor heat conductivity and high fire resistance. However, asbestos causes asbestosis, which leads to cancer. As a result of this problem, manufacturers of ceiling boards went into research to find out substitutes that can be used in the production of ceiling boards.
This substitute includes shredded wood, cellulose fibre agricultural waste etc.
Rather than industrial products (glass-fibre, iron fillings) and man-made
materials, the fibres best suited to the socio-economic circumstances of developing countries are natural fibres.
This project therefore, is based on how these natural fibres can be used in the production of ceiling boards in order to reduce cost and as well comparing the product with that which has been produced naturally.
1.1 AIMS AND OOBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
1. To study the possibility of making use of local raw materials for the production of ceiling board.
2. To produce a board with good acoustic and thermal insulating properties.
3. To produce a board with reduced cost to discourage importation there by saving Nigeria her foreign exchange and booting her economic status.
4. To reduce environmental pollution caused by indiscriminate litering of papers and the pollution of the air resulting from burning these waste.